Tag Archives: Health

​Tips to Lower Risk of a Heart Attack or Stroke

Tips to Lower Risk of a Heart Attack or Stroke

Reviewed by James Beckerman, MD, FACC 

Sometimes, small changes to your lifestyle can really cut your odds of having a heart attack or stroke. Try this step-by-step approach.

1. Exercise a Little Each Day

Moderate physical activity lowers your chances of a heart attack. Shoot for 30 minutes of exercise that gets your heart pumping at least 5 days a week. Brisk walking or swimming are some good choices. On the other 2 days, do strength training, like lifting weights.

If you’ve got a tight schedule, break your exercise routine into small chunks. Try a 15-minute walk in the morning and another before lunch.

2. Set a Reasonable Goal for Weight Loss

If you’re overweight or obese, you don’t have to get thin to reduce your risk for a heart attack or stroke. If you lose 5% to 10% of your weight, you’ll improve your cholesterol numbers and lower your blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

3. Take Your Heart Medicine

It sounds like a no-brainer, but don’t skip your meds. Many people don’t take their medications the way their doctor told them to. Figure out what keeps you from taking your medicine — it could be side effects, cost, or forgetfulness — and ask your doctor for help.

4. Eat Well

If you stick to a healthy diet, you could lower your odds of getting heart disease.

Fill your plate with different kinds of:



Whole grains


Lean meats

Stay away from processed or prepared foods that often are high in salt and added sugar. They’re also filled with preservatives.

5. Drink Some Alcohol, but Not Too Much

If you drink, any type of alcohol helps your heart, but use caution. Too much raises your risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke.

To get the benefit without the risk, stop at one drink a day if you’re a woman and two if you’re a man.

6. Eat a Little Chocolate

Go for dark chocolate, and make sure the ingredients are at least 70% cacao. It’s filled with nutrients that help protect your ticker.

Keep your portions small so you don’t gain weight and work your heart harder.

7. Don’t Smoke

Smoking dramatically raises your risk of heart attacks and strokes. Talk to your doctor about how to quit. You’ll also be doing your friends and family a favor, since secondhand smoke can also lead to heart disease.

8. Pay Attention to Your Symptoms

Don’t just hope they’ll go away. See your doctor if you feel anything unusual, like shortness of breath, changes in your heart rhythm, or extreme tiredness. Also, watch for pain in your jaw or back, nausea or vomiting, sweating, or flu-like symptoms.

Source: WebMD

Why you have bad breath

What your bad breath is trying to tell you

You ’re not drinking enough water

Dehydration is the leading cause of bad breath other than poor dental hygiene , according to the Mayo Clinic . Not drinking enough water means food ( and the bacteria that feed on it) hangs out in your mouth longer , breeding and heightening the stench. Fortunately the fix is as simple as the problem : Drink up ! Water is best , but doctors add that sugar – free gum or candies can also help stimulate saliva flow .

You have a serious illness

Bad breath may smell equally stinky to our untrained noses but according to researchers at the University of Colorado in Boulder, not all bad breath is created equally —and the presence of certain gasses in your mouth can indicate disease . For instance , excess methylamine may signal liver and kidney disease , ammonia may be a sign of renal failure , elevated acetone levels can indicate diabetes , and nitric oxide levels can be used to diagnose asthma , according to the scientists. A separate study found that a certain mix of bad breath gasses can even indicate malignant throat cancer . You can ’ t tell just from a sniff test but if you have chronic bad breath it might be worth getting a more sensitive test done in your doctor ’ s office .

You ’re at risk for heart disease

Gum and heart diseases are closely linked, with gingivitis being an early warning sign of cardiovascular problems , according to a study done by the International & American Association for Dental Research . And one of the major signs of gum disease is bad breath . Treat your gum disease and not only do you ditch the noxious mouth fumes but you also improve your heart health . Don ’ t miss these other silent signs of clogged arteries .

You have tonsillitis

One of the hallmarks of sore – throat disease is persistent bad breath . The same bacteria that give you bad breath are the ones that also infect your tonsils , giving you recurrent sore throats . Tonsillectomy , a surgery that removes the two glands in the back of your throat , can help treat the sickness and bad breath , according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology , Head and Neck Surgery.

You ’re at risk for pre – term delivery

Pregnant women need to pay particular attention to bad breath , according to the American Academy of Periodontology . Women with gum disease — often signified by halitosis —are more likely to have premature or low birth weight babies . This is why it’ s so important to stay on top of your dental hygiene and checkups when you ’ re expecting, the group says . Here are other secrets dentists wish patients knew.

You have a stomach ulcer

When you think ulcers you probably think of terrible stomach pain , problems eating and heartburn . But you may be overlooking another common symptom of the malady : bad breath . Helicobacter pylori , the bacteria known to cause stomach ulcers and also responsible for a large proportion of gastric cancers, can also make your mouth mega malodorous , according to research published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology . Here are other reasons your stomach pain is acting up .

You ’re overweight

You can now add bad breath to the list of health problems caused by being overweight , according to a study from Tel Aviv University . The researchers found that the more overweight a person is, the more likely their breath will smell unpleasant to others. They ’ re still investigating why this is the case . It may have to do with biological dysfunction or it may be another example of the social stigma endured by the obese .

You need to eat more yogurt

Bad breath , or halitosis , is caused by an overgrowth of “ bad ” bacteria in your mouth. But do you know what else is packed with bacteria ? Yogurt ! The humble dairy snack is a microbial superhero that can help fight off the stinky germs in your mouth and replace them with breath – friendly bugs .

Common solutions for pimples

Common solutions for pimples

Sade Oguntola

About 85 per cent of people get acne or pimples at some point in their lives, and scientists have long blamed it on the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. Left untreated, acne can lead to diminished self-esteem and scarring.
From mild to severe, cases of acne cause painful and unsightly outbreaks on the face, back, chest and even arms.
Genetics, changing hormone levels and stress are all contributing factors. However, friction from sports equipment and backpacks can further irritate skin, leading to acne breakouts on the chin, forehead, jaw line and back.
Unfortunately, many people choose potentially dangerous prescription drugs and topical medications over natural home remedies for acne.
Now, new research puts forth many natural home remedies for acne. A review of medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne listed Aloe vera, neem, turmeric, Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia chebula (Almond tree or tropical almond), Withania somnifera(Winter cherry), Butyrospermum paradoxum(shea butter tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ocimum basilicum(basil or Efirin in Yoruba) and Vitex negundo (chasteberry or Ata Iyere in Yoruba).
In the 2015 review, the researchers said the plants potential kill off the bacteria and fungi which cause or worsen acne symptoms as well as prevent the irritation that comes with acne.
Despite few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne, they stated “they might possibly be used alone or as adjuvant with other therapeutic measures or mild to moderate situations.”
There are two key ways by which Aloe vera can benefit acne sufferers. First, it is a great moisturiser and cleanser. It can penetrate the layers of the skin to nourish the follicles and soothe skin irritation. It can also speed up the healing of acne scars.
Moreover, holy basil and sweet basil essential oils have been found to fight acne caused by bacteria, according to a report published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Sciences.
In this study, sweet basil oil slightly outperformed holy basil oil in topical applications. Holy basil oil tea, or Tulsi tea, supports healthy blood sugar and hormone levels.
Since these two conditions are linked with acne, consuming herbal tea daily will balance hormones naturally, fighting acne from the inside out, making this one of the best cross-over home remedies for acne.
Additionally, garlic could also be used for this purpose. It is an anti-viral and anti-fungal agent and contains sulphur which helps in the fast treatment of acne.
Cut fresh garlic into half and rub against the pimple like it is done with the lemon. Leave for 10 minutes and wash with lukewarm water. This should be repeated several times a day.
Cucumbers also aid in the clearing of acne. Cucumbers are said to be rich in potassium and vitamins A, C and E. Slice cucumber and soak in water for an hour, the nutrients such as potassium and vitamins transfer to the water. Drink water or use water to wash face.
A face mask made from ground cucumber with little or no water also aids to clear acne. Apply all over the face and leave it for 20 minutes, then wash with warm water. This act helps remove oil and dirt from the face which aid in clearing acne.
Papaya (pawpaw) is also an effective treatment of acne. Papaya is said to be rich in vitamin A and also reduces inflammation. Make a paste by blending and apply all over the face. Wash face with lukewarm water. The exfoliating effect in papaya also helps remove dead cells from skin but this is advised to use after the pimple is gone.
Potatoes are rich in vitamins and minerals, essential fatty acids and a variety of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. With all its Vitamin-C, B-complex, as well as minerals like potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and zinc, potatoes are able to stimulate collagen and elastin synthesis. This gives you an evenly toned complexion.
In fact, potato juice is one of the best remedies for dark spots due to its skin lightening properties. Many natural enzymes, sugars and starches of potatoes along with its vitamin C, exfoliate the skin to slough off the dead cells and thus diminishing the black spots.
Watermelon is known as one of the best dark spot remedies due to its rich sources of moisture, fibre, vitamins A, B and C. The cool and soothing pulp of watermelon helps reduce sun damaged skin spots.
Aloe vera has anti-septic, analgesic and skin soothing properties along with excellent moisturising capabilities. It is a herb that can reduce skin pigmentation, sun tan, skin rash, premature ageing, acne and pimples, dry flaky skin, dark black spots, pimple marks, acne scars and any other blemishes on the skin. 

Courtesy Nigerian Tribune 

​Causes, prevention, treatments of cataracts

Causes, prevention, treatments of cataracts

What are cataracts?

It refers to a medical condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and opaque and ability to transmit light decreases. The process of cataract formation gradually diminishes sight.

What causes cataracts?

A change in chemical composition of lens causes most cataracts

Types of cataract

Age-related (senile) is the most common type, comprising 80 per cent of total cataracts.  It occurs in patients above the age of 50.

Congenital cataract:  these are rare.  They can be caused by an infection of the mother that is transmitted to the foetus during pregnancy or they may be hereditary.

Secondary: These happen as result of other medical conditions like diabetes. Eye diseases such as glaucoma, iritis, eye tumours also cause it.  They can also be caused by being around toxic substances, ultra-violet light or radiation.

Drug-induced cataract- prolonged treatment with steroid or diuretics drugs can sometimes cause cataracts

Traumatic:  these form after an injury to the eye, a hard blow, puncture, cut, intense heat or chemical burn can damage the lens and lead to cataract formation.

Other things that can raise your chance of getting cataracts include cigarette smoke.


Vision that is cloudy, blurry, foggy or filmy

Nearsightedness (in older people)

Changes in the way you see colour

Problems driving at night (glare from oncoming headlights for example)

Problems with glare during the day

Double vision in the affected

Change in colour of pupil

Trouble with eyeglasses or contact lenses not working well


Removal of the clouded lens by surgery is the only treatment.  Neither medication nor a change of glasses will improve vision. A cataract operation may be performed under local anaesthesia.  The clouded lens is removed.  It may be replaced by either an intraocular lens (IOL) or aphakic glasses.  The entire procedure only takes about 30 minutes.
Information courtesy Lagos State Ministry of Health, Alausa, Ikeja  

Causes,  treatment of Fungal Infection of the Nails

Fungal Infection of the Nails

We are programmed to always use our hands and feet, because they are the agents of mobility for us. This is also So because we constantly put our hands and feet in water, immersed in moist conditions.
Also, in the course of moving and using our limbs, we contact some infections, and if good hygiene is not employed, infects can occur. Therefore fungal infections can and do occur.
Many people develop a fungal nail infection at some point in their life. It’s not usually serious, but can be unpleasant and difficult to treat.
The infection develops slowly and causes the nail to become discoloured, thickened and distorted.
Toenails are more frequently affected than the fingernails. The medical name for a fungal nail infection is onychomycosis.
Fungal infections can affect any part of the body. Fungi are normally present in and on the body alongside various bacteria. When a fungus begins to overgrow, you can get an infection. Onychomycosis, also called tinea unguium, is a fungal infection that affects either the fingernails or toenails. Fungal nail infections are common. They’re not serious but they can take a long time to treat.
Fungal nail infections usually affect your toenails but you can get them on your finger nails too.
Fungal nail infections usually start at the edge of the nail. They often then spread to the middle. The nail becomes discoloured and lifts off. The nail becomes brittle and pieces can break off. It can cause pain and swelling in the skin around the nail.
What are the symptoms
Symptoms of a fungal nail infection
A fungal nail infection may not cause any obvious symptoms at first.
As it progresses, the infection can cause:
• discolouration of the nail – it may turn white, black, yellow or green
• thickening and distortion of the nail – it may become an unusual shape or texture and be difficult to trim
• pain or discomfort – particularly when using or placing pressure on the affected toe or finger
• brittle or crumbly nails – pieces may break off and come away completely
• Sometimes the skin nearby may also become infected and be itchy and cracked or red and swollen.
Most fungal nail infections occur as a result of the fungi that cause athlete’s foot infecting the nails.
These fungi often live harmlessly on your skin, but they can sometimes multiply and lead to infections. The fungi prefer warm, dark and moist places like the feet.
Those at risk
• have diabetes
• have a disease that causes poor circulation
• are over age 65
• wear artificial nails
• swim in a public swimming pool
• have a nail injury
• have a skin injury around the nail
• have moist fingers or toes for an extended time
• have a weakened immune system
• wear closed-toe shoes, such as tennis shoes or boots
• don’t keep your feet clean and dry
• wear shoes that cause your feet to get hot and sweaty
• walk around barefoot in places where fungal infections can spread easily, such as communal showers, locker rooms and gyms
• have damaged your nails
• have certain other health conditions, such as diabetes, psoriasis or peripheral arterial disease
Fungal nail infections can be spread to other people, so you should take steps to avoid this (see below) if you have an infection.
Treatments for fungal nail infections
Treatment isn’t always needed for a mild fungal nail infection because it’s unlikely to cause any further problems and you may feel it’s not worth treating.
Whether you decide to have treatment or not, you should still practise good foot hygiene to stop the infection getting worse or spreading to others.
Speak to your doctor if you’re bothered by the appearance of the affected nail, or it’s causing problems such as pain and discomfort. They’ll probably recommend:
• antifungal tablets – tablets taken once or twice a day for several months
• antifungal nail paints – special paints applied directly to the nail over several months
• nail softening kits – where a paste is used to soften infected parts of the nail, before they’re removed with a scraping device
A procedure to remove the nail completely may be recommended in severe cases. Laser treatment, where a high-energy laser is used to destroy the fungus, is also an option. But this is only available privately and can be expensive.
Treatment may not be necessary in mild cases of fungal nail infection. For more severe or troublesome cases, antifungal medication may be recommended.
A fungal nail infection is unlikely to get better without treatment, but if you’re not bothered by it you might decide it’s not worth treating because treatment can take a long time, may cause side effects, and isn’t always effective.
Whether or not you decide to have treatment, you should still follow the self-help advice below to help stop the condition getting worse or spreading to others.
Do these
The advice below may be helpful if you have a fungal nail infection:
• keep your hands and feet clean and dry
• wear well-fitting shoes made of natural materials and clean cotton socks – these will allow your feet to “breathe”
• clip your nails to keep them short – use a separate pair of clippers or scissors for the infected nail
• don’t share towels and socks with other people, and ensure your towels are washed regularly
• don’t walk around barefoot in public pools, showers, and locker rooms – special shower shoes are available to protect your feet
• consider replacing old footwear as it could be the source of the infection
• treat athlete’s foot as soon as possible to avoid the infection spreading to your nails
Antifungal medication
Speak to your doctor if you’re embarrassed by the appearance of the affected nail, or it’s causing problems such as pain and discomfort.
They’ll usually recommend treatment with antifungal medication, either in the form of tablets or a special paint you apply directly to the nail.
A small sample of the infected nail may need to be taken and sent off for testing before treatment starts, to confirm that you do have a fungal infection.
Antifungal tablets
Terbinafine and itraconazole are the two medicines most commonly prescribed for fungal nail infections. These usually need to be taken once or twice a day for several months to ensure the infection has completely cleared up. If you stop taking the medication too early, the infection may return.
Possible side effects of antifungal tablets can include headache, itching, diarrhoea, loss of sense of taste, and a rash.
Antifungal nail paint
If you prefer not to take antifungal tablets, your doctor may suggest you try antifungal nail paint instead.
Nail paint isn’t generally considered to be as effective as tablets because it can be difficult for it to reach the deeper layers of the nail. However, it doesn’t usually cause any side effects.
Like antifungal tablets, antifungal nail paint also normally needs to be used for several months to ensure that the infection has cleared up.
Results of treatment
Antifungal treatments are thought to be effective in treating about 60-80% of fungal nail infections. It can take between six and 18 months for the appearance of the affected nail to return to normal, and in some cases the nail may not look the same as before the infection.
If the treatment is working, you should see a new healthy nail start to grow from the base of nail over the course of a few months. The old infected nail should begin to grow out and can be gradually clipped away.
Speak to your doctor if new, healthy nail doesn’t start to grow after a few weeks of treatment. Keep using the treatment until your doctor says you can stop, as stopping too early could result in the infection returning.
Softening and scraping away the nail
As it can take a long time for antifungal medication to work, some people may prefer to use a treatment that involves softening and removing infected parts of nail over a few weeks.
Treatment kits are available from pharmacies that contain a 40% urea paste, plasters and a scraping device. The paste softens the infected parts of the nail, allowing them to be scraped away so they can be gradually replaced with healthy nail.
To use the treatment:
• wash the affected area and dry it thoroughly
• carefully apply the paste to the infected nails
• cover the nails with plasters and leave them for 24 hours
• wash the paste off the next day and scrape away the softened parts of the nail
• repeat this process each day for two to three weeks
• Once no more infected parts of the nail can be removed, ask your pharmacist for antifungal nail paint to prevent re-infection as the nail regrows over the next few months.
• Removing the nail
• A procedure to remove affected nails completely isn’t usually necessary, but may be recommended if the infection is severe or painful and other treatments haven’t helped.
If your nail is surgically removed, a new nail should eventually grow back in its place. However, it could take a year or more for the nail to grow back completely.
Preventing fungal nail infections:
1. You can reduce your risk of developing a fungal nail infection by:
2. keeping your hands and feet clean and dry
3. wearing well-fitting shoes made of natural materials and clean cotton socks – these will allow your feet to “breathe”
4. clipping your nails to keep them short – don’t share clippers or scissors with other people
5. not sharing towels and socks with other people, and ensure your towels are washed regularly
6. not walking around barefoot in public pools, showers, and locker rooms – special shower shoes are available to protect your feet
7. replacing old footwear that could be contaminated with fungi
8. treating athlete’s foot as soon as possible to avoid the infection spreading to your nails
Nail salon equipment can sometimes be the source of fungal nail infections. If you regularly visit a salon, make sure any equipment used is properly sterilised between uses.

​Benefits, side effects of bitter kola

Benefits, side effects of bitter kola

Garcinia kola or in simple terms , bitter kola originated from West and Central Africa . Signifying the importance of this second largest continent , it produces many healing wonders for us .

Garcinia kola belongs to the species of a tropical flowering plant . It produces brown , nut like seeds , similar looking to kidney beans .

Medicinal benefits

Lungs, the internal organ carry one of the most critical functions of the body . It helps us to breath .

The considerate amount of regular consumption of the seed helps in strengthening the fibers and the lung tissue , stabilising any counter effects.

It further assists in maintaining a good respiratory track and treats chest colds . It has a favorably high antioxidant content for a healthy body .

So , if you are a smoker or even a passive smoker , definitely this is the ‘ cure ’ .

Treating malaria

Kolaviron is an anti – oxidant and anti -inflammatory phytochemical . Kolaviron is a major constituent of garcinia seed which helps in treating malaria .

No wonder , the traditional healers suggest this for an easy and free cure , straight from the mother nature .

There are no definite side effects of having this naturally occurring blissful plant . But , anything in excess or wrong proportion may show its evil side. On certain occasions , consumption of bitter kola is found to have some side effects.

Irregular heartbeat

Certain bodies might just prove allergic to the plant and develop certain reactions . In such cases, it is advisable to consult a doctor and stop use .

Now we know that bitter kola is not actually bitter and has a sweet side which is healthy for us .

Mavcure . com

​Mosquitoes are our friends, stop killing them – Don

Mosquitoes are our friends, stop killing them – Don

By NAN | 

A Professor of Entomology at the University of Ilorin, Adeolu Ande, has decried killing mosquitoes, saying the insects are friends to humans that deserved to be properly managed.

Ande made the statement on Monday in Ilorin in a paper he presented at a public seminar organised by the university.

In his paper with the title “Consider the ways of Ants and be Wise,” the entomologist described insects as the “most successful and influential group’’ of organisms in the biosphere.

He said that humans had a lot to learn from insects in order to be wise.

“Human life is beset with inevitable associations with insects that have over the years influenced human destiny positively and negatively.

“Negative influences, such as disease transmission, crop losses, food spoilage, economic losses and nuisance value caused by less than 5 per cent of insect species have been exaggerated by man.

He said that positive influences of insects are not unappreciated and downplayed.

He listed some of them to include: pollination of flowers, waste recycling and sustenance of the ecosystem.

Others, he said, include source of silk, shellac, cochineal, therapeutic agents, aesthetics, biological control agents and food source.

The don said that man deliberately misunderstood the role of mosquitoes and frequently described them as causing the diseases they transmit.

He said: “in the actual sense, mosquitoes are equally sick but inadvertently and unwillingly convey pathogens that are the real causal agents of these diseases.

“The female mosquito could be described as an example of a true mother who is forced to undertake suicide mission in its bid to provide for its unborn children.

“The adult female mosquitoes have exceptional value for child raising hence the level of commitment and risk they take on the mission that entails decision between life and death.

“The after effect of this commitment is a well thought out plan that forestalls most of the factors that may stand in the way of raising good children.

“I am sure most human females will not take comparable decision in the face of similar attendant risks.

“It is however certain that children born after well thought out and risky conditions are better posited for quality living than those produced carelessly.

Ande said that mosquitoes had proved over the years that they are our friends and allies, adding that if we like them or not, they would exist and continue to source blood from humans.

The professor called for improvement in Zoology curriculum to ensure better focus on organisms that feature prominently around man.

He said that zoologists were expected to be the foster parents of animals in the Zoo, adding that they should be familiar with their needs and their health status.