Category Archives: Health

Why Stroke Cases Are Increasing — Physiotherapist

Why Stroke Cases Are Increasing — Physiotherapist

A Consultant Physiotherapist, Dr Chris Okafor, says the incidence of stroke has increased in the country due to the dwindling economy and the state of healthcare delivery.

Okafor, who is a senior lecturer at the Department of Physiotherapy, University of Lagos, Akoka, spoke in an interview with the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on Friday in Lagos.

The lecturer said that lack of awareness was also a contributory factor to the high incidence of stroke in the country.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), stroke accounts for 10.8 per cent mortality and 3.1 per cent of disease burden worldwide.

It has also been projected that by the year 2030, about 80 per cent of all stroke cases will occur in low and middle income countries of the world.

“A lot of people, both young and old, now come down with stroke due to poverty, lack of quality healthcare and awareness.

“We are not creating enough awareness for people to know that hypertension and diabetes, causes of stroke, are killer diseases,“ Okafor said.

He also identified poor environment, industrialisation, poor habits and attitudes as factors contributing to a lot of people not exercising regularly.

“Our environment does not encourage people to cultivate the habit of exercising.

“As a physiotherapist, when I see the elderly during clinics, I always advise them to be physically active and engage in daily walks.

“However, when you look at the environment, it does not encourage exercise, and so a lot of the elderly in the society are discouraged to walk.

“Also, habit is a challenge; many people are unable to practise, because we are in a society where, over the years, people have become lazy.

“Due to industrialisation and urbanisation, it is now difficult for people to exercise, and rather depend on buses and taxis to take them to different locations,‘’ he said.
The consultant urged the elderly in the society to maintain avoid sedentary lifestyle and high salt and sugar intake.

He appealed to stakeholders, including the government and healthcare practitioners, to continue to sensitise people to cultivate the attitude of being active.

“Exercise and being active is key to improved health; adequate sleep of eight to 10 hours daily is also advisable for the elderly people.

“Also, they should check their blood pressures and blood sugar regularly to prevent hypertension and diabetes.
“If they have problems, they should see a doctor who will refer them appropriately, “ Okafor said.(NAN)


Codeine abuse can cause cardiac arrest, low blood pressure –Expert

Codeine abuse can cause cardiac arrest, low blood pressure –Expert

A Deputy Director of Pharmaceutical Services at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Taiwo Ogundipe, discusses codeine and its effects with MOTUNRAYO JOEL

What is codeine?

Codeine is an alkaloid found in the opium poppy, the scientific name for the plant is papaver somniferum.

Codeine belongs to the class of drugs called opioids. It is used as an analgesic for the treatment of mild to moderate pain (narcotic analgesic). It can also be used as a cough suppressant and an anti-diarrhoea. It is better avoided in children under 18 years, pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers.

How addictive is codeine?

Codeine is supposed to be a “prescription-only-medicine.” When codeine is not used according to medical prescription and in high doses or high frequencies of use (drug abuse), it will lead to codeine addiction. It causes drowsiness and respiratory depression; its effect is not as high as marijuana.

It is illegal to buy or possess codeine without licence or prescription from a registered medical practitioner.

What are the side effects of codeine?

The side effects of codeine use include drowsiness, constipation, itchiness, vomiting and respiratory depression. The side effects that can arise from the misuse of codeine are usually adverse effects which include dry mouth, urinary retention, orthostatic hypotension and respiratory depression.

What are the dangers of mixing codeine with other drugs?

As a result of addiction, codeine alone may not be enough even at the high doses they take, they have to combine it with other drugs to get the expected high effects.

They combine codeine with alcohol, codeine with tramadol and some other agents that are known to the users. The danger of mixing codeine with other drugs is that there is the possibility of drug-drug interaction between codeine and the other drugs which may lead to toxicity, cause some complications and may be life-threatening.

If the codeine-addict eventually comes to the hospital for treatment, the doctors may not even know other drugs combined with codeine which may make treatment difficult.

What treatment options work best in treating codeine addiction?

The best treatment options are some chemical agents (medicines) can be used for detoxification of the body system of the codeine addict. Some implants have been developed which may be inserted to treat addiction. Some anti-craving agents can be used. Rehabilitation of the subjects during and after treatment is very important. Psychological counselling of the subjects is also very important.

What are the street names for this drug?

Some of the street names for codeine include school boy, science student, captain cody and cody. When it is mixed with alcohol, it is called Lean, sizzurp, purple drank. When mixed with tramadol, it may be called Lean-T.

What are the health risks of the drug?

The health risks of codeine are devastating to health and psychological state of the subjects. It produces euphoria, altered consciousness, confusion, cardiac arrest, allergic skin reaction, organ damage, heart rate and blood pressure can drop.

What are the signs of addiction?

Some of the signs of addiction include cyanosis (blue skin), slowed heartbeat, pinpoint pupils, lack of pulse, loss of consciousness, seizures, frequent vomiting and fatigue.

What are the symptoms of withdrawal?

If a person suddenly stops using codeine, withdrawal symptoms may occur which include running nose, chills, stomach cramps, sweating, pains, muscle spasm, weakness, yawning, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia and drug craving. To minimise withdrawal symptoms, long-term users should gradually reduce or tail-down their codeine use under medical supervision of a health care professional.

What are the relapse prevention techniques for addicts?

In advanced countries, there are addiction treatment centres, where you have addiction consultants and psychologists who attend to the needs of addicts through personal clinic contacts, phone calls and text messages. This can be adopted in Nigeria too.

Health facts: On codeine

What codeine is

Codeine is a narcotic pain-reliever and cough suppressant similar to morphine and hydrocodone. Moreover, a small amount of codeine is converted to morphine in the body. The precise mechanism of action of codeine is not known; however, like morphine, codeine binds to receptors in the brain (opioid receptors) that are important for transmitting the sensation of pain throughout the body and brain. Codeine increases tolerance to pain, decreasing discomfort, but the pain still is apparent to the patient. In addition to reducing pain, codeine also causes sedation drowsiness and depresses breathing.

Is codeine addictive?

Codeine is habit forming (addictive). Mental and physical dependence can occur but are unlikely when used for short-term pain relief. Using codeine during pregnancy can cause opioid withdrawal syndrome in the newborn, which may be life-threatening if not treated. One needs a prescription for codeine. Codeine is a schedule II controlled substance in the US.

Side effects

The most frequent side effects of codeine include lightheadedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, sedation, allergic reaction, constipation, rash, itching and abdominal pain. Serious side effects of codeine include life-threatening respiratory depression, severe low blood pressure, adrenal insufficiency and accidental ingestion of codeine can result in fatal overdose.

Alcohol with codeine

Codeine can impair thinking and physical abilities required for driving or operating machinery. Alcohol and other sedatives such as alprazolam (Xanax) can produce further brain impairment and even confusion when combined with codeine. Therefore, alcohol and other sedatives should not be used when taking codeine. Drugs that stimulate and also block opioid receptors (for example, pentazocine) reduce the effect of codeine. Such drugs should not be combined with codeine. Drugs that block the action of acetylcholine (anticholinergic drugs) increase the occurrence of urinary retention and constipation when combined with codeine.


Culled from The Punch

Causes, symptoms, treatment of heart attack

How to spot and treat a heart attack

By Christian Nordqvist

A heart attack is the death of a segment of heart muscle caused by a loss of blood supply. The blood is usually cut off when an artery supplying the heart muscle is blocked by a blood clot.
If some of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.

Fast facts on heart attacks:
During a heart attack, the heart muscle loses blood supply and is damaged.
Chest discomfort and pain are common symptoms.
The risk of a heart attack increases when a man is over 45 and a woman is over 55.
Smoking and obesity are big factors, particularly in the at-risk age range.

Heart attacks are a serious form of heart disease, with many different causes.
There are clear symptoms of a heart attack that require immediate medical attention.

A feeling of pressure, tightness, pain, squeezing, or aching in the chest or arms that spreads to the neck, jaw, or back can be a sign that a person is having a heart attack.

The following are other possible signs and symptoms of a heart attack occurring:

crushing chest pain
shortness of breath called dyspnea
face seeming gray in colour
a feeling of terror that life is ending
feeling awful, generally
feeling clammy and sweaty
shortness of breath
Changing position does not alleviate the pain of a heart attack. The pain a person feels is normally constant, although it may sometimes come and go.

Warning signs

As heart attacks can be fatal, it is vital to recognise the warning signs that an attack is occurring.

While the symptoms listed above are all linked to heart attacks, there are four warning signs listed by the American Heart Association (AHA) as being crucial signs of an attack. These include:

discomfort, pressure, squeezing, or fullness in the chest that lasts several minutes or resolves then returns
pain or discomfort in the arms, neck, back, stomach, or jaw
sudden shortness of breath
Other signs can include a cold sweat, a sick or nauseous feeling, or being light-headed.

When a person has these symptoms, the emergency services should be called immediately.


There are two types of complications that can happen following heart attack. The first occurs pretty much straightaway and the second happens later on.

Immediate complications

Arrhythmias: the heart beats irregularly, either too fast or too slowly.
Cardiogenic shock: a person’s blood pressure drops suddenly and the heart cannot supply enough blood for the body to work adequately.
Hypoxemia: levels of oxygen in the blood become too low.
Pulmonary oedema: fluid accumulates in and around the lungs.
DVT or deep vein thrombosis: the deep veins of the legs and pelvis develop blood clots that either block or interrupt the flow of blood in the vein.
Myocardial rupture: the heart attack damages the wall of the heart, meaning an increased risk of a heart wall rupture.
Ventricular aneurysm: a heart chamber, known as a ventricle, forms a bulge.
Complications that can occur later

Aneurysm: scar tissue builds up on the damaged heart wall, leading to blood clots, low blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms.
Angina: not enough oxygen reaches the heart, causing chest pain.
Congestive heart failure: the heart can only beat very weakly, leaving a person feeling exhausted and breathless.
Oedema: fluid accumulates in the ankles and legs, causing them to swell.
Loss of erectile function: erectile dysfunction is generally caused by a vascular problem. However, it can also be the result of depression.
Loss of libido: a loss of sexual drive can happen, especially in the case of men.
Pericarditis: the lining of the heart becomes inflamed, causing serious chest pain.
It is important that a doctor monitors a person for several months after they have had a heart attack to check for any of these complications that may occur.


The quicker someone is treated when having a heart attack, the greater the chances of success. These days, most heart attacks can be dealt with effectively.

However, it is crucial to remember that a person’s survival depends largely on how quickly they reach the hospital.

Treatments during a heart attack

Sometimes, a person who is having a heart attack will stop breathing. In this case, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, should be started immediately. This process involves:

manual chest compressions
a defibrillator
Treatments following a heart attack

Defibrillator panels can be effective during a heart attack.
Most people will need several kinds of medications or treatments after a heart attack. The aim of these measures is to prevent future heart attacks occurring. They may include:

aspirin and other antiplatelets
beta blockers
ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors
CABG or coronary artery bypass graft


A heart attack is a medical emergency in which the supply of blood to the heart becomes blocked, often as the result of a blood clot.

Other terms used for a heart attack include myocardial infarction, cardiac infarction, and coronary thrombosis. An infarction is when the blood supply to an area is cut off, and the tissue in that area dies.

A heart attack is often confused for a cardiac arrest. While they are both medical emergencies, a heart attack is the blockage of an artery leading to the heart, and a cardiac arrest involves the heart stopping the pumping of blood around the body. A heart attack can lead to cardiac arrest.

Congestive heart failure: What you need to know
Heart failure is a serious condition in which the heart is not pumping blood around the body efficiently.
Read now

The best way of preventing a heart attack is to have a healthy lifestyle. Measures for healthy living include the following:

not smoking
eating a balanced, healthful diet
getting plenty of exercise
getting plenty of good quality sleep
keeping diabetes under control
keeping alcohol intake down
maintaining blood cholesterol at optimum levels
keeping blood pressure at a safe level
maintaining a healthy body weight
avoiding stress where possible
learning how to manage stress
It may be helpful for people to learn more about the warning signs of a heart attack, as well.


Any doctor, nurse, or healthcare professional will send someone straight to hospital if they suspect they may be having a heart attack. Once there, several tests may be done, including:

ECG or electrocardiograph
cardiac enzyme tests
chest X-ray

Recovering from a heart attack can be a gradual process. It depends on the severity of the heart attack and other factors, such as a person’s age.

A person’s recovery may involve:

Resuming physical activity: it is vital that a recovering heart attack patient stays active. However, a specialist should design any exercise program for them.
Returning to work: the appropriate time for someone to go back to work depends on various factors, including the severity of the heart attack and the type of job they do. It is vital not to rush back to work.
A period of depression: many people who have had a heart attack experience depression not long afterwards. Those who feel depressed or anxious should tell their doctors.
Driving again: experts advise that a person refrains from driving for at least 4 weeks after a heart attack.
Erectile dysfunction: approximately one-third of men have problems getting or sustaining an erection after a heart attack.
It is important that men with erectile dysfunction talk to their doctors, as medication can restore function in most cases.

Experts say that sexual activity does not raise a person’s risk of having another heart attack.


The following factors are associated with increased risk of a heart attack:

Age: Heart attacks are more likely when a man is over 45, and when a woman is over 55.
Angina: This causes chest pain due to lack of oxygen or blood supply to the heart.
High cholesterol levels: These can increase the chance of blood clots in the arteries.
Diabetes: This can increase heart attack risk.
Diet: For example, consuming large quantities of saturated fats can increase the likelihood of a heart attack.
Genetics: A person can inherit a higher risk of heart attack.
Heart surgery: This can lead to a heart attack later on.
Hypertension: High blood pressure can put unnecessary strain on the heart.
Obesity: Being significantly overweight can put pressure on the heart.
Previous heart attack.
Smoking: Smokers are at much higher risk than non-smokers.
HIV: People who are HIV-positive have a 50 percent higher risk.
Work stress: Those who are shift workers or have stressful jobs can face a higher heart attack risk.
Physical inactivity is a factor in heart attack risk, and the more active people are, the lower their risk of having a heart attack.

Often, when it occurs, a heart attack is caused by a combination of factors, rather than a single one.


Five die in Ondo as govt confirms 24 cases of Lassa Fever

Five die in Ondo as govt confirms 24 cases of Lassa Fever

Hakeem Gbadamosi – Akure
The Ondo State government on Monday confirmed 24 cases of Lassa Fever in the state saying five people have lost their lives to the deadly disease in four local government areas of the state.

The Commissioner for Information and orientation, Mr Yemi Olowolabi who confirmed this said the affected local government areas included Owo, Akoko Southwest, Akure North and Akure south local government areas in the state.

He, however, said the state government had put in place adequate measure to guide against the spread of disease while it has also strengthened its medical apparatuses in all the specialist hospitals in the area to contain the spread of the disease.

The Commissioner said as part of efforts to checkmate the spread of the deadly disease, the isolation Centre at the Federal Medical Centre in Owo had also been reinforced to take adequate care of patients.

He disclosed that the state would embark on sensitisation and awareness programme to keep the public abreast of the development and on unhygienic habits that could aid the spread of Lassa Fever in the state.

It was gathered that some of the infected persons were hospitalised at the Federal Medical Centre, FMC, Owo, while others with critical conditions were referred to Irrua Specialist Hospital in Edo state for treatment.

Confirming the outbreak of the epidemic, a medical doctor with FMC Owo, who spoke on condition of anonymity told our correspondent, that a family of four were brought to FMC from Oka-Akoko area while some patients were also rushed to the centre from Owo and Ose local government areas.

The Medical expert expressed displeasure that the Ondo state government was not showing enough commitment to contain Lassa Fever in the areas, noting that health workers at FMC were now working under the fear of contracting the epidemic.

When contacted on telephone, the Chief Medical Director of FMC, Dr Liasu Ahmed who confirmed the outbreak, however, declined to give further details insisting that it was the prerogative of the Ondo state government to release details on the Lassa Fever outbreak.
Source: Tribune 


Medical doctor contracts Lassa fever in Kogi

Medical doctor contracts Lassa fever in Kogi

By Itodo Daniel Sule, Lokoja 

A medical doctor with the Federal Medical Center, Lokoja, Kogi State, has contracted Lassa fever in a fresh outbreak of the disease in the state.
The Medical Director of the Centre, Dr Olatunde Alabi, who confirmed this yesterday at a news briefing, said a male doctor with the hospital was diagnosed with the disease on January 19.

He said that the victim’s blood sample was sent to the Federal Medical Center, Irrua, Edo State, saying that the blood sample tested positive to laboratory tests.
Alabi said that the 30-year-old doctor was in the early hours of yesterday evacuated to Irrua for further treatment.
According to the Medical Director, the World Health Organisation (WHO), the state Ministry of Health and other stakeholders have been informed of the development and are already assisting the Centre in various ways.
He said that all the people that came in contact with the sick doctor, both at home and work had been placed under surveillance.
Alabi said that the centre in partnership with relevant stakeholders had commenced contact tracing to trace the source of the disease and ascertain if there is any other victim within the community where the doctor resides.
He said that the Centre will also embark on health education for its staff to prevent human to human transmission of the disease.
The Medical Director called for early report of cases of fever from members of the public for proper attention.
He also appealed to residents to take urgent steps to eliminate rats in their houses and surroundings, saying that foodstuffs like gari, rice, beans, maize should be kept in air tight containers to prevent contamination by rats.
Daily Trust on Sunday reports that about three confirmed cases of Lassa fever were recorded in Kogi State last year.
Source: Daily Trust 


Healing power of bitter leaf

Bitter leaf healing power

Bitterleaf is one of the widely use cooking vegetable in Africa and it can grow in any part of the world
Very few people are aware that this vegetable is highly medicinal and can be used to cure diseases as well as help to keep our body in good health condition. The important thing this leaf does is to clean the blood, hence prevent sickness. This made by squeezing the fresh leaves to get the juice. Drink about a glass of the juice 3 times a day.
•Bitter leaf also cleans the lymphatic system as well.
•For smokers or those that are been exposed to secondary smoke, bitter leaf is useful by protecting the body against pollutants that come from cigarette smoke and some dangerous gas.
•The juice prevents malaria sickness due to the presence of Natural Quinine. Regular intake of this bitter leaf juice will prevent malaria sickness
•It also yield the healing power of Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STD). The drinking of the bitter leaf juice daily and also squeeze the leaves and paste it on the patches and warts that appear on the skin will vanish in course of days.
•It is useful for treating of ringworm, eczema and other diseases, just squeeze and paste it regularly, drink the fresh bitter leaf juice, this will clear them off in no time.
•It is useful in curing loss of memory. It could be a symptom of diabetes or a sickness on its own. Whatever the nature, bitter leaf is very good for treating this ailment.
•If you often feel weak and tired or you lack vitality and vigour, squeeze the bitter leaf in water, take a glass 3 times daily.
It is good in treating stroke, strengthens the muscle and cleanses the system.
•In treating pneumonia, squeeze the fresh leafs of the plant in water. Take a glass full thrice daily. Warm the solution on fire each time before you drink.
•Insomnia is an inability to sleep well, take 2 glasses of bitter leaf juice every night. You may add a little honey if you wish.
•It prevent Arthritis or rheumatism in patients. It soothes swollen joints and eradicates the pain.
•Chew the tender stem and swallowing the juices is a well known remedy for stomach aches. Alternatively, pound the fresh leaves in a mortar to extract the juice, add a pinch of salt to three tablespoons of the undiluted juice and drink. This version is reported to bring immediate relief.


Childhood Cancer: A Burden Unaddressed

Childhood Cancer: A Burden Unaddressed

While the Nigerian government gives priority to communicable diseases, cancer, a non-communicable disease is currently stripping many children of their prime, dimming hopes for the country’s future. Ayodeji Ake writes on the need to tackle the growing disease

Cancer is a name used to classify a very wide-range of diseases in which cells in the body lose their normal structure and/or function and begin to grow uncontrollably. It is not one disease. There are hundreds of different types of cancers and one organ can develop dozens of different types of the mad cells.

This refers to malignant tumors which send metastases to other distant organs through blood or lymph. And could be better described as an army, that sends emissary or spy soldiers to a faraway country to set up a secret war camp. The metastases initially stay silent but will eventually cause a lot of harm if left unchecked.

Statistics show that over the last decade, Nigeria’s exponential growth in population has put immense pressure on the country’s resources and on already overstretched public services and infrastructure. With children under 15 years of age accounting for about 45 per cent of the country’s population.

According to World Health Organisation’s estimate, up to 30,000 children are diagnosed with cancer yearly; and 80 per cent of them live in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) like Nigeria. Globally, there are 160,000 new cases of cancer every year and 90,000 deaths recorded annually for children under the age of 15.

Just like adult cancer, childhood cancer is not one entity. There are many different types of cancer that can develop in a child. The same processes of cell growth, division, and replication occur in children. And just like adults, things can go wrong somewhere along these processes.

Many people don’t know that children develop cancers too. Children develop different types of cancer than adults but they often have the same types of treatments, that is chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

Most common cancer of children includes; Leukemia – cancer of the blood, brain and spinal cord tumors, Neuroblastoma – cancer arising in neural structure most common in the abdomen (belly area), Wilms tumor – cancer arising in kidney cells, Lymphoma (including both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin) – cancer arising in lymph nodes, Rhabdomyosarcoma – cancer arising in cells with muscle origin, Retinoblastoma – cancer of the retina of the eye, Bone cancer (most common Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma).

An Oncologist and the founder of a non-profit organisation, Dorcas Foundation, Dr. Adedayo Joseph, who has taken a lead role in raising fund for treatment of early detected childhood cancer explained that sadly till date the causes of childhood cancer are unknown but most childhood cancers are traced to genetic aberrations which nobody can prevent.

“There are many different types of cancer in children, most of which no specific cause has been identified. Some cancers have been linked to viral causes or exposure of the parent or child to harmful ionizing radiation, or certain chemicals like Benzene. Generally speaking, children’s cancers are mostly due to genetic aberrations which nobody can prevent, and are still being understood by scientist and researchers,” she said.

Reducing the burden of childhood cancer, Joseph admitted that “it’s a difficult task. Unlike adult cancers that are linked to diet and lifestyle choices, children’s cancers are not really preventable.”

As a mother, she lamented that the expensive treatment of cancer generally is an obstacle, consequently losing lives battling cancer. “Cancer treatment is very expensive. It costs an average of N2 million to take a child through diagnosis and testing, to treatment and rehabilitation. As at today, Dorcas Foundation has funded treatment for 10 children as you can imagine, many people cannot afford this,” she said.

She noted that the foundation is actively involved in funding direct care for children with cancer. But do not begin the treatment process unless they are sure of covering it till the end of treatment.

She also noted that The Dorcas Cancer Foundation has recently launched our Childhood Cancer Handbook Series with the release of the first book in the series: Cancer in Children.

The foundation intends to translate these books into the common colloquial and vernacular languages in Nigeria, as well as continue to release more books in the series to educate families, patients, and healthcare professionals about childhood cancers.

Prof. Remi Adekingbe, an Oncologist at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), has called for early detection and diagnosis.

Adekingbe urged for private and government partnerships to secure the lives of cancer patients, stating that treatment and drugs for cancer are very expensive.

“Cancer is not a respecter of anybody. When a mother notices anything unusual, she should report to the hospital immediately. Treatment and drugs for cancer are expensive. In Nigeria today, we only have about seven machines for cancer treatment when we should be having about 200. Patients cannot battle cancer on their own, they need assistance from private organisations and even the government,” he said.

According to WHO, all types of cancer arise from the transformation of normal cells into tumour cells in a multistage processthat generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour.

The health body says these changes are the result of the interaction between a person’s genetic factors and three categories of externalagents, including: physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant); and biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites.

WHO, through its cancer research agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), maintains a classification of cancer-causing agents. “Ageing is another fundamental factor for the development of cancer. The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a build-up of risks for specific cancers that increase with age.

The health body believes risk factors for cancer includes tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity, which it described as major cancer risk factors worldwide; also representing four shared risk factors for other noncommunicable diseases. “Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer and have major relevance in low- and middle-income countries,” it added.

“Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early through early diagnosis. When identified early, cancer is more likely to respond to effective treatment and can result in greater probability of surviving, less morbidity, and less expensive treatment. Significant improvements can be made in the lives of cancer patients by detecting cancer early and avoiding delays in care,” the body says.

Culled from ThisDay